TABLE 2

Characteristics of automated readers for detecting antinuclear antibodies by IFA testinga

Automated systemNo. of samples/hFull automationNo. of patterns recognizedbNuclear stainc
Aklides48–60No6dDAPI
EUROPattern90Yes7dPI
Helios150Yes7dNone
Image Navigator90YesePositive/negativeNone
NOVA View48–60Yese5dDAPI
Zenit G-Sight14–48No5dNone
Cytospot96YesPositive/negativeNone
  • a Adapted from Tozzoli et al. (49) and Bizzaro et al. (50), with modification.

  • b Aklides: cytoplasmic, homogeneous, speckled, nucleolar, centromere, and multiple nuclear dots patterns; Helios: centromere, cytoplasmic, homogeneous, nuclear membrane, nuclear dots, nucleolar, and speckled (granular) patterns; EUROPattern: homogeneous, speckled, nucleolar, centromeric, nuclear dots, nuclear membrane, and cytoplasmic patterns; NOVA View: homogeneous, speckled, centromere, nucleolar, and nuclear dots cytoplasmic patterns; Zenit G-Sight: homogeneous, nucleolar, speckled, centromere, and mitochondrial patterns.

  • c DAPI, 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; PI, propidium iodide.

  • d Titer prediction capabilities.

  • e Connection to pipetting station.