Commonly reported antinuclear antibody patterns, related autoantigens, and clinical associationsa

PatternCommon autoantibody targetsbClinical associationsc
HomogeneousdsDNA, histones, chromatin/nucleosomesSLE, drug-induced SLE
SpeckledU1-RNP, SSA/Ro, SSB/La, Smith, topo I (Scl-70), Mi-2SLE, SjS, SSc, IIMs, MCTD
CentromereCentromeric proteinsSSc, PBC
NucleolarPM/Scl, RNA polymerase, U3-RNP, Th/ToSSc, IIMs, Raynaud's syndrome overlap
CytoplasmicRibo P, Jo-1, other tRNA synthetases, SRPSLE, IIMs, PBC, interstitial lung disease
  • a The table shows the commonly recognized ANA patterns detected using the HEp-2 substrate and their associated antibody markers, which are routinely tested in clinical laboratories. The homogeneous, speckled, centromere, and nucleolar patterns represent “true” ANAs and are associated with nuclear staining.

  • b dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; RNP, ribonucleoprotein; topo I, topoisomerase I; Mi-2, chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4; PM, polymyositis; Scl, scleroderma; Th/To, Th/To ribonucleoprotein; Ribo P, ribosomal P protein; SRP, signal recognition particle.

  • c SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SjS, Sjögren's syndrome; SSc, systemic sclerosis; IIMs, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies; MCTD, mixed connective tissue disease; PBC, primary biliary cholangitis.