TABLE 2

Examples of studies attempting to define the rate of pneumococcal colonization in older people by culture-based and/or molecular methods

First author (reference)YrCountryNo. sampledAge (yr)Site sampledAnalysis methodRate of detection of pneumococci, n (%)
Becker-Dreps (15)2015USA21081.4 (6.3)aNPdClassical microbiology4 (1.9)
Almeida (16)2014Portugal3,36174.56 (8.2)aNPClassical microbiologyg61 (1.8)
OPf15 (0.4)
Overall76 (2.3)
Flamaing (17)2012Belgium50380.3 (10.0)aNPClassical microbiologyh21 (4.2)
Esposito (18)2016Italy41773.97 (6.66)aOPPCR41 (9.8)
Ansaldi (19)2013Italy283NReNPCulture-enriched PCR53 (18.7)
van Deursen (20)2016Netherlands33072.7 (68.7–79.0)bNPClassical microbiology16 (5)
PCR32 (10)
OPClassical microbiology16 (5)
PCR58 (18)
Overall75 (23)
Krone (21)2015Netherlands270c69 (NR)NPCulture-enriched PCR13 (5)
OP31 (11)
Saliva76 (28)
Overall91 (34)
  • a Mean (standard deviation).

  • b Median (interquartile range).

  • c A total of 135 subjects sampled both before and after influenza-like illness. At a participant level, 65/135 (48%) tested positive on at least one occasion.

  • d NP, nasopharynx.

  • e NR, not reported.

  • f OP, oropharynx.

  • g With multiplex PCR confirmation of culture-positive specimens.

  • h A subset was also tested by lytA PCR. See published paper for full details.