TABLE 3

Absolute lymphocyte subset concentrations in venous blood from Malawian children with malaria

Lymphocyte subsetMedian valuea (10th–90th percentile) for clinical group:P value forb:
Control (n = 42)Cerebral malariaSevere malarial anemiaUncomplicated malariaDifferences between acute groups and controls (Kruskal-Wallis, adjusted)Acute group differences independent of age (nonparametric ANCOVA, adjusted)Differences between Conv groups and controls (Kruskal-Wallis, adjusted)Conv group differences independent of age (nonparametric ANCOVA, adjusted)
Acute (n = 29)Convc (n = 18)Acute (n = 30)Conv (n = 21)Acute (n = 54)Conv (n = 34)
Total lymphocytes5,250 (3,500–7,470)2,100 (960–4,460)4,750 (2,720–6,760)5,950 (2,340–14,540)5,300 (2,520–11,200)3,700 (1,600–6,900)5,200 (3,190–9,160)8.2 × 10−95.6 × 10−30.900.37
T cells (CD3+)3,317 (1,989–4,627)1,208 (683–2,919)3,414 (2,067–4,337)3,446 (1,386–8,904)3,558 (1,816–6,515)2,543 (1,002–4,582)3,671 (2,108–5,829)1.7 × 10−85.6 × 10−30.900.23
CD4+ T cells (CD3+ CD4+)1,763 (1,154–2,665)717 (381–1,533)1,812 (1,081–2,798)1,651 (772–5,658)1,873 (755–4,002)1,189 (496–2,022)1,678 (1,110–3,065)1.4 × 10−80.0110.950.60
CD8+ T cells (CD3+ CD8+)1,304 (710–1,984)442 (201–1,017)1,268 (807–2,001)1,581 (504–4,106)1,550 (623–3,283)1,029 (360–1,772)1,197 (861–2,717)6.1 × 10−80.0450.900.23
γδ T cells (CD3+ γδ TCR+d)198 (82–368)116 (32–343)391 (122–672)432 (76–2,272)296 (97–879)239 (68–837)290 (125–750)1.5 × 10−30.190.0740.52
B cells (CD19+)1,342 (692–2,586)651 (242–1,527)761 (439–2,044)1,836 (558–5,597)1,223 (523–2,322)990 (379–1,869)1,070 (565–3,308)4.3 × 10−60.0210.440.60
NK cells (CD3 CD56+)310 (98–767)111 (42–243)266 (106–908)358 (136–1,022)484 (141–769)225 (94–713)317 (135–822)3.8 × 10−70.0370.810.60
NK T cells (CD3+ CD56+)58 (25–114)37 (10–87)75 (30–138)74 (18–266)75 (29–167)59 (22–115)81 (28–170)0.0110.0470.680.63
  • a Per microliter of blood.

  • b Kruskal-Wallis and nonparametric ANCOVA P values apply to groups of children with acute or convalescent malaria and controls and are adjusted with Benjamini-Hochberg corrections for multiple comparisons.

  • c Conv, convalescent.

  • d TCR, T cell receptor.