TABLE 4

Percentages of activated lymphocyte subset concentrations and ratios of memory to naive lymphocyte subsets in venous blood from Malawian children with malaria

Subset characteristicaMedian value (10th–90th percentile) for clinical group:P value forb:
Control (n = 42)Cerebral malariaSevere malarial anemiaUncomplicated malariaDifferences between acute groups and controls (Kruskal-Wallis, adjusted)Acute group differences independent of age (nonparametric ANCOVA, adjusted)Differences between Conv groups and controls (Kruskal-Wallis, adjusted)Acute group differences independent of age (nonparametric ANCOVA, adjusted)
Acute (n = 29)Convc (n = 18)Acute (n = 30)Conv (n = 21)Acute (n = 54)Conv (n = 34)
% CD69+ of subset
    T cells21.08 (13.29–37.39)37.09 (25.83–64.16)27.13 (10.97–57.49)28.46 (15.83–49.30)24.10 (10.35–61.96)27.55 (15.91–53.25)25.26 (12.45–54.92)1.4 × 10−59.2 × 10−30.830.60
    NK cells25.77 (18.06–37.81)73.36 (48.63–85.23)30.84 (18.07–48.38)58.18 (25.08–79.45)29.29 (17.79–48.62)59.11 (34.56–78.34)33.60 (15.85–49.90)6.0 × 10−141.0 × 10−40.520.60
    γδ T cells23.83 (13.76–38.21)60.13 (34.95–76.92)24.13 (12.51–35.23)51.94 (33.14–73.46)25.62 (13.71–43.48)50.00 (25.44–77.27)25.76 (4.28–33.49)1.2 × 10−112.0 × 10−40.950.61
Memory/naïve cell ratio of subset
    CD4+ T cells0.40 (0.23–0.87)0.85 (0.50–1.93)0.55 (0.29–1.16)0.40 (0.24–0.71)0.47 (0.23–1.30)0.62 (0.31–1.31)0.49 (0.34–0.92)5.7 × 10−85.6 × 10−30.470.60
    CD8+ T cells0.19 (0.11–0.37)0.21 (0.09–0.45)0.26 (0.08–0.45)0.16 (0.07–0.42)0.15 (0.09–0.53)0.23 (0.11–0.56)0.19 (0.10–0.48)0.200.240.950.60
    B cells0.18 (0.06–0.54)0.27 (0.10–0.45)0.27 (0.08–0.59)0.18 (0.08–0.33)0.20 (0.09–0.40)0.27 (0.10–0.44)0.27 (0.11–0.47)0.0390.690.810.90
  • a Values are medians (10th and 90th percentiles) presented as percentages of each lymphocyte subset expressing the CD69 activation marker or memory-to-naive cell ratio of each subset according to CD45RO (memory T cell), CD45RA (naive T cell), and CD27 (memory B cell) expression.

  • b Kruskal-Wallis and nonparametric ANCOVA P values apply to groups of children with acute or convalescent malaria and controls and are adjusted with Benjamini-Hochberg corrections for multiple comparisons.

  • c Conv, convalescent.