TABLE 1

Pattern recognition receptors and microbial ligands and their adapter molecules

PRRMicrobial ligandsaAdapter moleculeb
Membrane receptors
    Dectin-1β-glucanCARD9
    TLR2Lipoteichoic acid (Pam3CSK4)TIRAP
LipoproteinsMyD88
Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositols from Toxoplasma gondii
    TLR4LipopolysaccharideTIRAP
Envelope proteins of RSVMyD88
Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositols from T. gondiiTRAM
TRIF
    TLR5FlagellinMyD88
Endosomal receptors
    TLR3dsRNATRIF
Poly (I·C)
    TLR7/8ssRNA (R848)MyD88
    TLR9CpG DNAMyD88
Cytosolic receptors
    NOD1Tri-DAPCARD6
    NOD2Muramyl dipeptideCARD12
  • a RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; dsRNA, double-stranded RNA; ssRNA, single-stranded RNA.

  • b TRAM, Toll-like receptor adaptor molecule.