TABLE 4

Adjuvant effect of combinations of TLR agonists on chicken immune cells

TLR combinationCell categoryResult(s)Reference
TLR5 and TLR4Chicken PBMCsSynergistic upregulation of NO, IL-6, and IL-12; antagonistic downregulation of IL-479
TLR3 and TLR21Chicken RBCsaSynergistic upregulation of type 1 IFNs102
TLR3 and TLR21Chicken monocytesSynergistic upregulation of IFN-γ and IL-10103
TLR4 and TLR21Chicken thrombocytesSynergistic upregulation of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8104
TLR3 and TLR21Chicken monocytesSynergistic upregulation of NO, IL-1β, IL-6, and MIP-1β92
TLR3 and TLR21Chicken monocytesSynergistic upregulation of NO production94
  • a RBCs, red blood cells.