TABLE 1

Summary of TLR5-mediated adjuvant action of flagellated Salmonella strains

Study modelResult(s)Reference
Chicken kidney cells (CKC)Flagellated strains S. Enteritidis and S. Gallinarum (Fla+) induced higher levels of CXCLi2, iNOS, and IL-6; less mortality with flagellated strains73
Chicken (in vivo)Flagellin-deficient mutants exhibited enhanced ability for systemic infections; lower levels of IL-1β and CXCLi2 than wild type75
Chicken PBMCsTLR5-flagellin-mediated upregulation of IL-1β, IL-6, CXCLi2, and CCLi2 expression in S. Enteritidis-infected cells74
CKC and HD11Flagellated S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium induced more IL-6, CXCLi1, CXCLi2, and iNOS than nonflagellated S. Pullorum and S. Gallinarum105
HeLa cells expressing chicken TLR5Induced more NF-κB in response to S. Enteritidis infection in a dose- and flagellin-dependent manner72
Chicken (in vivo)Reduced levels of IL-1β and IL-6 and enhanced ability to establish systemic infection after challenge with aflagellar S. Typhimurium23
Intestinal epithelial cellsFlagellin-deficient S. Typhimurium mutant (fliC, fljB, and flhD) failed to elicit IL-8 expression52