Table 1

Presence or absence of parasite antigen-induced cytokine production by CB mononuclear cells from offspring of women infected or not with common intravascular parasitic infection during pregnancy

Source of CBSubjectCytokine(s) induced by antigen toa:
MalariabSchistosomecFilariasisd
Kenya (sensitized)007IFN-γ/IL-13/IL-5
044IFN-γ
061IFN-γ/IL-13IL-5/IL-13
195IL-13/IL-10
110IFN-γ/IL-13/IL-10IFN-γ/IL-13
211IFN-γIFN-γ/IL-10
024IFN-γ
039IFN-γ/IL-13/IL-10IFN-γ/IL-13
Kenya (not sensitized)016
049
276
082
089
055
108
067
North America1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
  • a Positive response was assessed by ELISA and defined as cytokine production that was increased >2-fold over the background level.

  • b The malaria antigens used were P. falciparum MSP1-42 and PfP0. If only one cytokine was detected, a positive response was defined as >2-fold production in response to two or more malaria blood stage antigens.

  • c The schistosome antigen was crude soluble adult worm extract from Schistosoma mansoni (SWAP).

  • d The filarial antigen was a crude soluble extract of Brugia malayi.