Table 2

Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of typhoid fever diagnostic tests when used on patients with axillary temperatures of ≥38.5°C (using a composite reference standard of blood culture and real-time PCR as the comparator)

Test% (95% confidence interval)
SensitivitySpecificityPPVNPV
Tubex52.0 (32.4–71.6)90.6 (86.0–95.1)0.464 (0.280–0.649)0.923 (0.881–0.965)
TyphiDot64.0 (45.2–82.8)81.8 (75.8–87.8)0.356 (0.226–0.495)0.935 (0.894–0.976)
TR-0292.0 (81.4–100.3)85.5 (80.1–91.0)0.500 (0.356–0.644)0.986 (0.966–1.01)
Widal (titer, 160)40.0 (20.8–59.2)97.5 (95.1–99.9)0.714 (0.478–0.951)0.912 (0.869–0.954)