TABLE 1.

Baseline clinical characteristics of 37 patients with suspected CNS TBa

CharacteristicPatients with CNS TB (n = 12)bPatients with not-active TB (n = 25)
Mean ± SD age (yr)45.5 ± 16.539.3 ± 16.5
Male sex5 (42)15 (60)
Suspected infection and infection site
    Suspected TB meningitisc8 (67)23 (92)
    Suspected intracranial tuberculoma with disseminated TB4 (33)2 (8)
Underlying condition or illness
    Human immunodeficiency virus infection1 (8)1 (4)
    Transplantation0 (0)2 (8)
    Hematologic malignancy0 (0)2 (8)
    Solid tumor0 (0)1 (4)
    Rheumatologic disease1 (8)1 (4)
    Diabetes1 (8)1 (4)
    No underlying illness8 (67)17 (68)
Immunosuppressive conditiond2 (17)7 (28)
Prior latent tuberculosis treatment0 (0)0 (0)
Prior active tuberculosis treatment2 (17)0 (0)
Tuberculin skin test induration size of ≥10 mm after 48 h6 (50)8 (32)
Results of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis
    Positive AFB stain of CSF sample1 (13)e0 (0)
    Positive M. tuberculosis PCR result for CSF sample0 (0)e0 (0)
    Positive M. tuberculosis culture result for CSF sample3 (38)e0 (0)
    Positive M. tuberculosis PCR or culture result for some other specimen4 (100)f0 (0)
  • a Data are presented as the number (percent) of patients unless indicated otherwise.

  • b CNS TB includes cases of confirmed (n = 7), probable (n = 3), and possible (n = 2) TB.

  • c All 31 patients with suspected TB meningitis showed lymphodominant pleocytosis in the CSF examination. The diagnoses for patients with not-active TB (n = 23) included confirmed viral meningitis (n = 7), probable viral meningitis (n = 9), leptomeningeal seeding of lymphoma (n = 2), and other diagnoses (n = 5).

  • d An immunosuppressive condition was defined as an underlying disease such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, malignancy, liver cirrhosis, and chronic renal failure and/or immunosuppressive treatment.

  • e The denominator is eight patients with TB meningitis.

  • f The denominator is four patients with intracranial tuberculoma and disseminated TB.