Clinical characterization of the serum panels used in this study

PanelNo. of serum samplesClinical characterization
U.S. Lyme disease
    Acute55Early, EM, first month of infection
    Acute, single EM42Early, acute, single EM at presentation, 33 culture positive
    Acute disseminated, multiple EM5Early, acute disseminated, multiple EM at presentation
    Acute, neurologic6Early, acute neurologic, meningitis, facial nerve palsy
    Late Lyme disease15Compatible with late Lyme disease based on arthritis and/or neurologic symptoms at presentation
    Lyme disease reinfected5Previously successfully treated for EM, continued exposure to tick bite who again presented to the Lyme disease clinic
European Lyme disease
    Austrian30Erythema migrans, cutaneous Lyme disease
    Portuguese100Panel comprised of sera from patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of Lyme disease and patients for differential diagnosis with Lyme disease
    Rheumatoid arthritis34Rheumatoid arthritis
    Syphilis27Syphilis, Treponema pallidum infection
    Systemic lupus erythematosus20Systemic lupus erythematosus
    Healthy50Healthy individuals from area of endemicity