TABLE 1.

Causes of and conditions associated with WBi results

AssociationStatusConditionReference(s)
SubjectsHIV and related infectionsEarly seroconversion13, 25, 40, 65, 77
Advanced AIDS6, 50
HIV-2 infection25, 47
Abortive infection31
Infection with deletion strains69
Immunosilent AIDS46
Divergent HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus77
Other retroviral infectionHTLV infection25
CAEV91
Other medical conditionAutoimmue diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjogren's syndrome)2, 89, 90, 96
Leprosy44
Malignancy96
Elevated bilirubin, nucleoproteins, and rheumatoid factor7
HLA3
No infectionNoninfected children born to infected mothers11
Recipients of unscreened products30
Participant vaccine trial45, 104
Donors with consistent WBi results25, 26, 30, 104
Kit designHost cell proteins20, 72, 73
Interpretation criteria54, 87
Optimizations/consistency of kits30, 58, 105
Assay processCross-contamination39, 62
Test routine39
Equipment62
Sample treatment and hemolysis16, 32, 42