TABLE 1.

Time-averaged mean resultsa

GroupTAM (SD)
Heart rate (min−1)Rectal temp (°C)TNF-α (ng/liter)IL-6 (ng/liter)Cortisol (mg/dl)Lymphocyte count (109/liter)Neutrophil count (109/liter)
Placebo61 (7)36.8 (0.2)1.36 (0.68)4.03 (0.77)0.61 (0.14)2.1 (0.5)2.9 (1.5)
Infusion64 (7)37.0 (0.2)3.88 (1.46)b9.82 (6.26)0.62 (0.13)1.7 (0.4)4.2 (0.9)
Bolus68 (6)37.0 (0.3)5.37 (1.36)b,c16.8 (14.4)b0.69 (0.18)1.5 (0.5)5.5 (1.6)b
  • a Time-averaged means, representing total inflammatory responses, were calculated as the area under the curve (using absolute values of variables over time) divided by the duration of the study, i.e., 8 h.

  • b Significantly different compared to placebo result.

  • c Significantly different compared to infusion result.