TABLE 1.

Demographic characteristics and CD4+-cell counts of the three subgroups of study participantsa

CharacteristicNo. (%) of or parameter for minersNo. (%) of or parameter for pregnant women (n = 681)
Men (n = 94)Women (n = 89)P-valuebMen and women (n = 183)
Sex
    Male94 (100)94 (51.4)
    Female89 (100)89 (48.6)681 (100)
Married84 (89.4)57 (64.0)<0.0001141 (77.1)653 (96.7)
Education<0.01
    <1 yrc25 (26.6)54 (60.7)79 (43.9)6 (0.9)
    Primary (1-6 yrs)35 (36.2)31 (34.8)65 (34.8)185 (28.5)
    Junior secondary (7-9 yrs)11 (11.7)2 (2.2)13 (7.1)112 (17.2)
    Senior secondary (10-12 yrs)18 (19.2)1 (1.1)19 (10.4)204 (31.4)
    Tertiary (13-16 yrs)6 (6.4)1 (1.1)7 (3.8)137 (21.1)
    Unspecified6 (0.9)
Takes alcohol0.62
    Yes6 (37.5)5 (29.4)11 (33.3)37 (5.5)
    No10 (62.5)12 (70.6)22 (66.7)633 (94.5)
Circumcised0.38
    Yes37 (42.1)40 (48.8)77 (45.3)48 (7.5)
    No51 (57.9)42 (51.2)93 (54.7)590 (92.5)
Owns family car0.92
    Yes4 (4.4)4 (4.7)8 (4.5)156 (23.2)
    No87 (95.6)81 (95.3)168 (95.5)518 (76.8)
Had STD last year0.13
    Yes21 (25.3)12 (15.6)33 (20.6)101 (15.4)
    No62 (74.7)65 (84.4)127 (79.4)555 (84.6)
Religion0.33
    Christian92 (98.9)86 (100)178 (99.4)518 (76.1)
    Muslim1 (1.1)0 (0.0)1 (0.6)163 (23.9)
Age (yrs)0.59
    10-191 (1.1)0 (0.0)1 (0.6)53 (7.8)
    20-2923 (24.5)17 (19.1)40 (21.9)386 (56.7)
    30-3934 (36.2)28 (31.5)62 (33.9)204 (30.00)
    40-4914 (14.9)19 (21.4)33 (18.0)18 (2.6)
    50-5910 (10.6)9 (10.1)19 (10.4)0 (0.00)
    60-6912 (12.8)16 (18)28 (15.3)20 (2.9)
± test resultd
    Mean CD4+ cell count (SD)838 (193)818 (213)0.51828 (203)771 (250)
    Reference range528-1330497-1310547-1327321-1314
  • a Some of the row totals do not add up to the total figure of 864 because of missing data. Subjects with missing values were left out of the analysis for each variable.

  • b Values are for the chi-square test comparing proportions and t test comparing means, between male and female miners.

  • c All but four subjects in this category (one male miner and three female miners) had no education at all.

  • d Variance ratio test P value was 0.58 (male miners versus female miners). Reference ranges were determined using the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of CD4+-cell count within each group.