TABLE 1.

Study participant characteristics and the summary of cytokine responses

Child groupNo. of subjectsMedian age (range) (yr)Tempa (°C) (n)iParasitemiaa (103 parasites/μl)Hemoglobin concna (g/dl)IL-12 concnh (pg/ml)No. of IL-18 responders/total no. of subjects (%)
Aparasitemicb199 (3-12)36.7 ± 0.4 (19) 011 ± 1.8254 ± 3346/19 (32)
Asymptomaticc208 (5-11)36.5 ± 0.3 (19)1.9 ± 4.510.5 ± 3.382 ± 843/20 (15)
Mild malariad176 (2-11)38.6 ± 0.9 (17)3.2 ± 4.210.9 ± 2.9197 ± 2529/17 (53)
UCe104 (3-11)38.3 ± 1.3 (10)40 ± 28.411.8 ± 1.688 ± 1397/10 (70)
MMAf133 (2.5-7)38.3 ± 1 (12)32.3 ± 49.17 ± 0.998 ± 1426/13 (46)
SMAg103 (2-6)37.6 ± 0.9 (10)27.9 ± 28.64 ± 0.636 ± 543/10 (30)
  • a Data are arithmetic means ± standard deviations.

  • b Aparasitemic children were those who had neither detectable levels of P. falciparum parasitemia nor fever.

  • c Asymptomatic children had P. falciparum parasitemia but no febrile symptoms.

  • d Mild malaria was defined as a febrile illness (temperature > 37.5°C) in the presence of asexual parasitemia (<8,000 parasites/μl) without severe anemia.

  • e UC malaria was defined as presence of high-density P. falciparum parasitemia (≥8,000 parasites/μl) with fever (axillary temperature >37.5°C) but no severe anemia (Hb > 8 g/dl).

  • f The MMA group included children with any densities of P. falciparum infection, fever, and hemoglobin levels of <8 but >5 g/dl.

  • g The SMA group included children with fever and any levels of P. falciparum parasitemia with anemia (Hb level of ≤5 g/dl).

  • h The arithmetic means ± standard deviations are given. The median values were significantly different between the aparasitemic control group and the SMA group (P < 0.05).

  • i n, total number of subjects in each group.