TABLE 1.

Characterization of genetically modified mice

Gene knocked outStatusa
ParasitemiaAnemiaCMMechanism
IL-12↓ IFN-γ
GM-CSF=
TNF-RI=, ↑?=↓ Memory
TNF-RII↑?
IRF-1=↑ IL-10
IL-10=↑ Pathology
IL-18↓ IFN-γ
IFN-γ↑↑↓ NO
IFN-γR=, ↑ (second wave)↑ Leukocytes↓ ICAM-1
TNF-α/β↓ ICAM-1
TNF-α=, Pathology↓?
IL-6==
  • a Summary of phenotype data from knockout mice (see the text for details). =, No effect; ↑, increase; ↓, decrease; ?, to be confirmed.