TABLE 3.

Tests and techniques used in mucosal immunity (humoral and cellular)a

Parameter(s) studiedQualification and quantificationFunctional assays
Test(s)Reference(s) (when specifically applied to mucosal immunity)Test(s)Reference(s) (when specifically applied to mucosal immunity)
Humoral immunity (soluble factors, specific and nonspecific)ELISA (antibodies, cytokines) 22, 31, 63-65, 72, 86Hemagglutination inhibition, seroneutralization 37, 53
Western blottingAntibody-mediated passive protection 65
ImmunoprecipitationInhibition of binding
ImmunodiffusionInhibition of transcytosis 40
In vitro toxicity 75
Sensitization or allergic reaction 72
Opsonophagocytosis
Cellular immunity (specific and nonspecific)ELISPOTs (antibodies, cytokines) 2, 9, 10, 18, 20, 26, 32, 36, 44, 51, 54, 60, 71, 72, 77, 81, 82CTLs 59, 70
Intracellular cytokine staining 4 DTH (Th1) 79
RT-PCR 6, 50, 57, 88APC function (DCs) 30, 74, 76
Isolation of T-cell clones 12-14Allergic reaction (role of mast cells) 29, 61
Detection of APCs 15, 76
Lymphoproliferation 28, 38Chemotaxis assay 30
Immunohistochemistry 16, 72Development of mucosal system (role of cytokines, use of transgenic mice) 45
Phenotyping fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis (receptors, αβ/γδ integrins, costimulatory molecules, etc.) 16, 70Cell-mediated passive protection 56
Others study of mucosal pathogens [including protection assays], study of microflora, biodistribution, mucosal penetration, etc.Pathogen or microflora identification and quantification 25, 41, 46, 48, 53, 58, 66, 74Enzymatic assays 23, 25, 48
Histology (mucosal modifications) 1, 19, 48, 72, 80, 87
Use of in vitro mucosal chambers (study antigen or pathogen uptake and induced phenomena) 55 Use of in vitro mucosal chambers (study antigen or pathogen uptake and induced phenomena) 55
  • a The separation between (i) qualification and quantification and (ii) functional assays may seem artificial in some situations, but this has nevertheless been attempted for more clarity.