Table 1.

Major considerations for clinically relevant surrogate markers in HIV infection

Classification of surrogate markers based on disease pathogenesis
Immune activation and dysregulation in HIV pathogenesis
 Cytokine changes
 Soluble markers of activation in plasma and serum
 Lymphocyte phenotypic changes in HIV infection
 Neoplasia
 Response to therapy
Surrogate markers for cytokines: serum (soluble) markers of immune activation as measures of cytokine activity
Comparing the value of surrogate markers: POP graphs
Test availability, quality control, and cost