Table 2.

Cytokine changes in HIV infection

CytokineLevels in plasma/serumaIn vivo cytokine gene expressionbIn vitro response to stimulation
IL-2NM↓PBMC
N CD4
IFN-γ↑PBMC
↑CD8
IL-4LowN PBMC?
IL-10NMN PBMC
TNF-α↑PBMC and Mφ
IL-6↑PBMC and Mφ
IL-12NM?
  • a NM, Not measurable (or uncertain).

  • b Specific cytokine mRNA levels in lymphoid cells and monocytes. N, normal range; Mφ, macrophage.