Table 2.

Recent studies comparing oral fluids with serum for the confirmation of antibodies to HIV by Western blot

Western blot assay (no. of patients testeda)No. of patients with the following oral-fluid WB resultb:Reference
Posi- tiveIndeter- minateNega- tive
Whole saliva
 Organon Teknikavan den Akker et al., 1992 (79)
  Recombinant blot (20)2000
  Standard blot (20)7121
 DuPont (142)13750Behets et al., 1991 (7)
 In-house (103)10300Major et al., 1991 (50)
 Organon Teknika (35)3320Holmstrom et al., 1990 (37)
 DuPont (19)1900Vasudevachari et al., 1989 (81)
 In-house (474)47310Granade et al., 1998 (31)
 Epitope OraSure (673)66580Gallo et al., 1997 (26)
 Cambridge Biotech (195)19050Emmons et al., 1995 (19)
 Pasteur (108)10800Gomez et al., 1994 (29)
 Organon Teknika (355)301522Soto-Ramirez et al., 1992 (71)
 Bio-Rad (195)19500Grant et al., 1996 (33)
 In-house (149)14900Granade et al., 1995 (30)
 Cambridge Biotech (315)282330Fittzgibbons et al., 1993 (22)
 Genelabs 2.2 (102)10200Martinez et al., 1995 (55)
 Bio-Rad (47)26192Crofts et al., 1991 (16)
Foam swab, Genelabs 2.2 (34)3400Tess et al., 1996 (74)
  • a Data includes only matched oral-fluid and serum specimens that were positive for HIV antibodies by a screening assay.

  • b A positive oral-fluid Western blot was defined as one demonstrating at least two envelope bands (gp 160, gp 120, or gp41) according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (84) or at least two of three bands (gp160/gp120, gp41, or p24) as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors (8). Ten laboratories used the CDC criteria, three laboratories used the WHO criteria, and the criteria were not stated for two of the laboratories.