Table 1.

Recent studies comparing oral fluids with serum for the detection of antibodies to HIV by screening assays

AssayaSensitivityb(%)Specificityc (%)Reference
Whole saliva
 Immune complex transfer EIA63/63 (100)76/76 (100)Ishikawa et al., 1995 (39)
 GACELISA VK 61 HIV-1+249/50 (98)57/57 (100)Luo et al., 1995 (49)
 Wellcozyme HIV-1+2 VK54/5547/50 (94)57/57 (100)
 Wellcozyme HIV-1 VK56/5748/50 (96)57/57 (100)
 Abbott TestPack HIV-1/HIV-235/35 (100)35/35 (100)Fernandez et al., 1994 (21)
 GACELISA HIV-1+271/71 (100)65/65 (100)de Pilar Azinheira et al., 1994 (18)d
 DB ELISA HIV-189/100 (89)94/100 (94)Chamnanput and Phanuphak, 1993 (9)
 Genelavia HIV-1/HIV-2100/100 (100)96/100 (96)
 Abbott Recombinant HIV-1/HIV-2100/100 (100)99/100 (99)
 Abbott TestPack HIV-1/HIV-2100/100 (100)100/100 (100)
 Recombigen HIV-1/HIV-2 RTD20/20 (100)20/20 (100)
 GACRIA HIV-117/18 (94.4)273/273 (100)Hunt et al., 1993 (38)
 GACELISA HIV-18/8 (100)214/214 (100)
 Abbott TestPack HIV-1/HIV-248/50 (96)50/50 (100)Urquia et al., 1993 (77)
 GACELISA HIV-1+231/32 (96.9)43/43 (100)Gershy-Damet et al., 1992 (28)e
 GACELISA HIV-1+249/49 (100)50/50 (100)Thongcharoen et al., 1992 (76)
 Vironostika HIV-1-Mixt79/79 (100)115/115 (100)van den Akker et al., 1992 (79)
 Vironostika HIV-1142/145 (97.9)313/313 (100)Behets et al., 1991 (7)
 Recombigen HIV-1117/119 (98.3)429/429 (100)Major et al, 1991 (50)
 Vironostika HIV-135/36 (97.2)14/14 (100)Holmstrom et al., 1990 (37)
 Passive hemagglutination HIV-119/22 (86.4)NDf Vasudevachari et al., 1989 (81)
 DuPont HIV-1 ELISA11/22 (50)ND
 GACRIA HIV-1196/196 (100)459/460 (99.8)Johnson et al., 1988 (42)
 Wellcozyme HIV-1 Monoclonal150/165 (90.9)404/405 (99.8)
 Abbott Recombinant HIV-1151/184 (82.1)443/443 (100)
 Serodia HIV-1175/179 (97.8)354/421 (84.1)
 GACRIA HIV-141/41 (100)10/10 (100)Parry et al., 1987 (60)
 GACELISA HIV-143/43 (100)10/10 (100)
OraSure
 GACELISA HIV-1474/474 (100)3,940/3,948 (99.8)Granade et al., 1998 (31)
 Oral-fluid Vironostika HIV-1470/474 (99.2)3,915/3,948 (99.2)
 Vironostika HIV-1468/474 (98.7)3,948/3,948 (100)
 Oral-fluid Vironostika HIV-1672/673 (99.9)2,893/2,897 (99.9)Gallo et al., 1997 (26)
 Abbott HIV-1 AB195/195 (100)198/198 (100)Emmons et al., 1995 (19)
 Coulter HIV-1 EIA108/109 (99.1)16/16 (100)Gomez et al., 1994 (29)
 Abbott Recombinant HIV-1/HIV-238/41 (92.7)244/244 (100)
 Abbott TestPack HIV-1/HIV-244/44 (100)243/243 (100)Holm-Hansen et al., 1993 (36)
 SUDS HIV-135/36 (97.2)230/230 (100)
 Organon Teknika HIV-1 EIA354/356 (99.4)1,524/1,524 (100)Soto-Ramirez et al., 1992 (71)
Omni-SAL
 Detect HIV 1/251/52 (98.1)35/35 (100)Solomon et al., 1997 (70)
 Abbott TestPack HIV-1/HIV-2195/205 (95.1)295/297 (99.3)Grant et al., 1996 (33)
 Organon Teknika HIV-1149/149 (100)135/136 (99.3)Granade et al., 1995 (30)
 Abbott 3A11 EIA149/149 (100)135/136 (99.3)
 GACELISA HIV-1149/149 (100)135/136 (99.3)
 Recombigen HIV-1358/368 (97.3)888/888 (100)King et al., 1995 (43)
 OraScreen Dipstick HIV-1/HIV-271/75 (94.7)195/196 (99.5)Leow et al., 1995 (47)
 GACELISA HIV-1+2133/133 (100)151/153 (98.7)Vall Mayans et al., 1995 (78)
 Detect HIV 1/2168/172 (97.7)814/814 (100)Wongba et al., 1995 (83)
 GACELISA HIV-1+2115/115 (100)451/451 (100)Chassany et al., 1994 (10)
 Recombigen HIV-170/75 (93.3)1,404/1,405 (99.9)Frerichs et al., 1994 (24)
 Abbott HIV-1 AB74/75 (98.7)1,393/1,405 (99.1)
 GACELISA HIV-1+275/75 (100)1,403/1,405 (99.9)
 GACELISA HIV-1+2300/300 (100)1,647/1,654 (99.6)Frerichs et al., 1994 (25)
 Abbott Recombinant HIV-1/HIV-2139/139 (100)52/52 (100)Lu et al., 1994 (48)
 Abbott TestPack HIV-1/HIV-2139/139 (100)52/52 (100)
 Recombigen HIV-1315/315 (100)207/207 (100)Fitzgibbons et al., 1993 (22)
 Abbott Recombinant HIV-1/HIV-2315/315 (100)207/207 (100)
 Recombigen HIV-168/75 (90.7)1,424/1,426 (99.9)g Frerichs et al., 1992 (23)
71/75 (94.7)1,423/1,425 (99.9)h
 ImmunoComb II HIV-1 and HIV-262/62 (100)527/527 (100)Saville et al., 1997 (67)i
Salivette
 Abbott TestPack HIV-1/HIV-2103/104 (99)137/137 (100)Martinez et al., 1995 (55)
 GACELISA HIV-1+2104/104 (100)112/137 (81.8)
Assaya Sensitivityb(%)Specificityc (%)Reference
 GACELISA HIV-1+250/50 (100)127/127 (100)Connell et al., 1993 (12)
 GACELISA HIV-14/4 (100)94/94 (100)Covell et al., 1993 (15)
 Wellcozyme HIV-1/2 ELISA133/135 (98.5)87/87 (100)Stark et al., 1993 (72)
 Biotest HIV-1/2 ELISA132/135 (97.8)87/87 (100)
 GACELISA HIV-149/50 (98)50/50 (100)Crofts et al., 1991 (16)
 Abbott Recombinant HIV-144/50 (88)50/50 (100)
 GACELISA HIV-1+242/42 (100)48/48 (100)Klokke et al., 1991 (44)
Orapette, SalivaCard HIV-1/HIV-2114/114 (100)501/502 (99.8)Saville et al., 1997 (67)j
Foam swab, GACELISA VK 61 HIV-1+234/34 (100)297/297 (100)Tess et al., 1996 (74)
  • a As named by the authors.

  • b Number of reactive oral-fluid specimens/total seropositive specimens.

  • c Number of nonreactive oral-fluid specimens/total seronegative specimens.

  • d Includes 60 saliva specimens from HIV-2-infected individuals.

  • e Includes eight saliva specimens from HIV-2-infected individuals.

  • f ND, not done.

  • g From testing performed in Myanma.

  • h From testing performed in Vancouver, Wash.

  • i Includes four oral-fluid specimens from HIV-2-infected individuals.

  • j Includes five oral-fluid specimens from HIV-2-infected individuals.