Table 1.

Sociodemographic characteristics of the sample

CharacteristicGrand meanHIV-1 subjectsHIV-1+ subjectsa
n 1194574
Age (yr)b 38.3 (9.5)c 41.2 (11.1)36.5 (7.9)
Education (yr)b 15.1 (2.2)15.5 (2.2)14.8 (2.1)
Income last month ($)d 2,025.8 (2,246.8)2,561.1 (3,174.2)1,707.6 (1,374.3)
Health insurance (%)b , e 61.975.054.1
Annual income (%)f
 $10,000 or less17.111.420.6
 $40,000 or more15.413.616.4
Living arrangement (%)g
 Living alone60.760.061.1
 Living with intimate partner13.715.612.5
 Living with roommate14.517.812.5
 Living with parent5.14.45.6
 Other arrangement6.02.28.3
Ethnicity (%)
 African American6.74.48.1
 Hispanic American20.217.821.6
 European American71.477.867.6
 Other ethnicity1.70.02.7
Employment (%)
  • a There were no seroconversions during the study. One subject confirmed to be HIV-1+ by antibody test at entry subsequently tested seronegative as well as negative by PCR. Loss of HIV-1 antibody together with a negative PCR result have been demonstrated previously (16) and may be more common than formerly thought (41). Hence, this subject was retained as seropositive; eliminating him from the sample did not affect the results reported herein.

  • b Only age and health insurance were significantly different by HIV-1 serostatus (P ≤ 0.05). Education showed a nonsignificant trend toward a difference (P ≤ 0.07). These variables were not significantly different by treatment assignment and were not considered control variables.

  • c Standard deviations appear in parentheses.

  • d Means for income last month were based onn HIV-1 = 41 andn HIV-1+ = 69.

  • e The percentages for health insurance data were based on n HIV-1 = 44 and on the full subsample (n = 74) of HIV-1+ subjects.

  • f The percentages for annual income data were based on n HIV-1 = 44 andn HIV-1+ = 73.

  • g The percentages for living arrangement data were based on n HIV-1 = 45 andn HIV-1+ = 72.